Word of caution:
The load tables being referred to are NOT recommendations. They list maximums (loads) or minimums (inflation pressure) Many vehicle manufacturers specify inflations pressure significantly higher than needed for the GAWR - and I think there is a lesson to be learned there.
I recommend that tires should be inflated such that there is a 15% reserve (unused) load carrying capacity. Safety first.
And here is the reason why "dualed" tires have less load carrying capacity than "single" tires.
Differences in tire diameter are going to affect how much load each dualled tire carries - the larger diameter tire carrying more. In order to account for these small differences - and to make sure a given tire isn't overloaded - the load carrying capacity of a dualled tires is reduced about 9%.
This applies to any tire that is dualled up - light truck, medium truck, heavy truck, earthmover - but not all of those are designed to be dualled up. It does not apply to tires that are not designed to be dualled up - passenger car, ST, motorcycle, agricultural, etc.
Oh, and "tandem" axles are paired axles (right next to each other), where a "dualled" axle has 4 tires on it (2 on each end). Tandem axles are considered "singles" from the tire's perspective.
A couple of thoghts:
I had a discussion with a suspension engineer at Ford. He told me that vehicles with high caster angles tend to develop these "death rattles". Jeeps have been pointed to as having this problem - and they have high caster angles. So do some Ford trucks.
I've also picked up that it doesn't take much wear on components to turn a vehicle into one that has this problem - small enough wear that most shops would say the vehicle is fine.
So I'm curious if this apples here as well.
And just an FYI:
Radial tires are generally built with 2 radial plies (bead to bead which includes the sidewalls) and 2 additional steel plies under the tread. Sometimes there are nylon (or generic name polyamide) cap plies ( 1 or 2).
This is true for passenger car tires, light truck tires and ST tires.
Variations: Small Passenger car tires may need only a single ply for strength purposes.
Large truck tires (over the road size) are frequently made with a single steel body ply. These tires usually have additional plies in the belt area that function like cap plies.
Some off road LT tires may use 3 sidewall (body) plies. This is more for damage resistance than strength.
US regulations require the construction to be written on the sidewall of all street tires. It will appear in the form:
Sidewall: 2 plies polyester
Tread: 2 plies polyester, 2 plies steel, 1 ply nylon.
(or what ever the construction is)
First, you can NOT prevent. You can only reduce the risk. The best way to do that is:
1) Weigh the trailer fully loaded. Weigh each wheel position and determine the worst case. I am of the opinion that you need to have at least a 15% un-used load carrying capacity in your tires. If you don't, fix that by going larger or increasing the inflation pressure.
2) Check the pressure in your tires BEFORE every move. Sometimes that will mean daily.
3) Inspect your tires BEFORE every move. Use gloves and rub the tread around the circumference. Any tires with bulges should be replaced IMMEDIATELY!
4) During the inspection, look for cracking. When it gets excessive, replace the tires - REGARDLESS of how old they are or how little wear they have.
5) Replace your tires based on age. There is some disagreement as to what that limit should be, but for trailer tires, 5 years is a common value.
Now to answer your questions: Covers will help. Keeping them fully inflated will also help.
If you will allow me, I'll give some insight into what the vehicle manufacturer does regarding the pressure that is listed on the vehicle tire placard and in the owners manual.
Different vehicle manufacturers use different methods to arrive at the tire pressures, but once they get there, they select springs, shocks, and sway bars based on that pressure.
Then they test. They test the vehicle in all configurations - fully loaded, empty. If the owners manual calls for a different pressure when empty, they will have tested it.The handling tests are quite severe - commonly called limit handling.
So if your vehicle owners manual does NOT call for a different pressure when empty, the vehicle manufacturer probably did not test that condition.
We know that a tire's spring rate changes with pressure - and changing pressure that changes the handling balance - the understeer/oversteer characteristics.
I am of the opinion that the vehicle manufacturer's specifications should be followed because those conditions are known. Anything else is unknown.
According to their website specs they are 31.5" in diameter, the same diameter as a ST235/80-16.
CAUTION: The specs on Goodyear's web site might be wrong. Every other tire they make in that size is 1" larger in diameter than what is quoted for the G614.
A couple of thoughts on tire failures:
First, these are covered by the comprehensive. not the collision part of the vehicle insurance.
Second, sometimes tire failures can be attributed road hazards - and the tire manufacturer may deny the claim. In that case, the vehicle insurance covers it under the comprehensive part.
In many cases, it becomes easier to file a claim with the insurance company and let them deal with the tire manufacturer.
- and it is my understanding that claims filed under the comprehensive coverage will not cause your insurance rates to go up (unless you file a bunch of them!)
Just an FYI:
As a tire engineer, I have always wondered why wheels don't have max pressure limitations stamped on them. I can understand that there is a limited amount of space on a wheel and there is more important info. But I have seen so many cases where there is a maximum load and still plenty of space.
I mean, tires have this info stamped on the sidewall, so why not wheels? Yes, I know tires are required by government regulations to have this info, but why not wheels? If max pressure is so important, why aren't there the same sort of regulations for wheels?
In my quest for the answer, I searched out people who design wheels. Not people who sell them, the guys who specify what materials go into wheels - what kind of steel, how thick, etc. So far I have run across 2 people who fit this description - and are willing to discuss the issue. They both said that the stresses applied to the wheel by the load is so much greater than the stresses from inflation pressure, that you can ignore pressure. Put a different way, differences in inflation pressure doesn't cause enough difference in stress to worry about - and that's why wheels don't have maximum inflation pressures stamped on them.
Just recently, a paper was given at a conference on computer modeling. The paper was about applying a particular stress analysis software to wheel design. While the paper wasn't specifically about the results obtained, it did give some insight into the subject. What I found interesting was that while it was clear that the load on the wheel was important, inflation pressure wasn't mentioned at all. I take this as further confirmation of my previous conversations.
I interpret all this to mean that if a wheel doesn't have a maximum pressure rating, that the maximum allowable pressure is more than what the tire's maximum would be - so there isn't a problem.
I also interpret this to mean that given the choice, it would be better to use more inflation pressure (even more than the maximum listed on the wheel), rather than use the lower pressure that seems to be contributing to tire failures. Put a different way, this is about which risk is greater - and the wheel seems to less sensitive to inflation pressure than the tire is.
I'm not so sure you in fact gain that extra protection from an ST tire underinflated by 15 to 20%.
It's not "just been heard", but I have yet to see a manufacturer or knowledgeable source recommending inflating an ST tire for anything under the max pressure listed on the side wall.......
A couple of thoughts:
First is using the maximum inflation pressure listed on the sidewall of a tire? It depends.
When we talk about cars and light trucks, there's a vehicle tire placard that lists the original tire size and proper inflation pressure for that size. If you have one of those vehicles, that's what you should use (unless you've changed tire sizes, then the pressure has to be recalculated)
If you have a recently built travel trailer, it also should have a vehicle tire placard. I do not think you will find any that do not use the maximum pressure written on the tire, because trailer manufacturers are well known for using the smallest tires they can. So many people say you should use the maximum, including tire manufacturers, but this isn't quite accurate. If you've oversize the tires on your trailer, then the maximum MIGHT not be appropriate - and to be able to tell, you need to know the load on the tires.
I hope this clarifies things.
And just an FYI:
The difference between a Load Range D and a Load Range E (what people are referring to here as 8 ply vs 10 ply - incorrectly I might add) is small enough that it has neglible affect on the running temperature. Check what is written about the construction on the sidewall of otherwise identical tires and they will both read the same. The ply material is ever so slightly heavier in a LR E, but not enough to worry about. The rest of the tire completely overwhelms what small differences there may be.
I recently had new tires installed on my 5th wheel. I then had the rv weighed. It was weighed one wheel at a time. I know what the weight is on each wheel. Should I inflate the tires to the max stated on the tire or base it on the weight on the wheel?
My opinion is that a tire needs to be inflated such that the load carrying capacity is 115% of what the load table says is the minimum. You'll find that many vehicle manufacturers use this value 9or similar values) - especially the ones that don't seem to have tire issues.
The great thing about forums is you can always get the advice you were hoping to get to back up your own judgement.
Take your pick
it also increases friction, which increases heat and decreases fuel mileage.
the tires run cooler snd last longer summer or winter.
Don't you just love tire threads? They are so entertaining! Any answer you want!
You are overcomplicating this. I get involved with these kinds of things on a regular basis and here's the skinny.
1) If the tire manufacturer has agreed to pay, then they owe you the 3 deductibles. Follow their procedures - which ought to be estimates, and the insurance adjuster's estimates ought to be adequate.
2) While the bank holds the lien, you own the vehicle. You can do what you want without the bank's approvel. Keep them out of the loop. It will just compliacte things.
3) Yes, there are 3 separate incidences. Yes, they have a common theme, but they occurred at different times. Besides, the tire manufacturer has agreed to settle the claim, so you shouldn't worry about them.
4) Your willingness to do the work yourself shouldn't be reflected in what the insurance company does. If they will only pay the guys that repair the vehicle - so be it. But if they are willing to give you a check, then you can repair it yourself - and YOU would then be compensated for the time it takes you to do the repairs.
So keep it simple.
I have a fiver that weighs about 11,000 pounds dry. It has two axles. The tires are ST225/75R15, D rated, 2540 pounds. Most of the tires this size are out of china. I want to go to a 16" tire with Michelin Ribs with a E rating. There is plenty of room on the front axel on top and sides. On the driver side rear axel the size tire on it now is 5/16 from a rod that operates the slide. It has been like this since I got it new. The fiver probably has 12,000 miles on it with no issues.
My question is if push comes to shove would it be safe to put 16" tires on the front axle and a 16" on the passenger side of the rear axel with a 15" on the driver side where it is so tight? Or maybe 16s on the front and15s on the rear? From the center out you are only talking about 1/2inch. Also how would this affect the towing on the fiver.
Also in the past on other smaller trailers I used maybe a 1/2 inch of flat washers on the lug bolts with double lug nuts to move the entire rim and tire out away from the springs or frame.
I am scared to death of these Chinese tires. How about some help on this. I thank all of you.
You could go to LT225/75R16's and the only clearance issue you'd have to worry about is the diameter. No need to washers to change the offset.
Oh, and mixing sizes is a terrible idea. It's bad enough that there is going to be differences in the loading of individual tires, but differences in diameter is going to make this much, much worse.
At this point, it doesn't matter to me as my axle is 3500lbs and the GVWR of the TT is 2700. Any net tire rating over 1350 is adequate even if the TT is fully loaded.
If fully loaded and with 10% derating, I would have an excess of 435lbs/tire and a safety margin of 435/1350 = 32%.
What tire pressure should I use for 1060lbs on this 1984lb 65psi rated tire?
I ignored the numbers you posted in your question and rephrased it as: "What inflation pressure should I use?"
The math was a bit complex, so I am not going to reproduce it here, but the answer I got was 50 psi. That would be the same as for the original ST tire, so we are taking advantage of the additional load carrying capacity to reduce the risk of failure.
Actually the way the "C" is used is to identify those Vanco tires as being designed for the European market. They will still have to be derated for service on trailer axles.
Actually, the C means commercial and those are just like LT tires. They do not have to be derated.
just compared tomax tires to the bf Goodrich 235 85r 16. the tomax 235 80 r16 have a 3500lb load rating while the bf only 3000.why is that
LT tires are rated for higher speeds and for steer and drive axles. ST tires are not.