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Open Roads Forum  >  Around the Campfire  >  General Topics

 > 2019–20 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

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BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 05/21/21 10:34am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is an interesting extension of the idea that antibodies to BCoV could cross react to SARS-CoV-2.

Bovine Coronavirus Immune Milk Against COVID-19
The idea here is to utilize passive immunity provided by milk from cows vaccinated against BCoV to treat for SARS-CoV-2.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 05/21/21 12:25pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Efficacy Estimates for Various COVID-19 ........ we Know from the Literature and Reports
Medrxiv preprint

Quote:

Abstract

In this report, we provide summary estimates, from publications and reports, of vaccine efficacy (VE) for the COVID-19 vaccines that are being rolled out on a global scale. We find that, on average, the efficacy against any disease with infection is 85% (95% CI: 71 - 93%) after a full course of vaccination. The VE against severe disease, hospitalization or death averages close to 100%. The average VE against infection, regardless of symptoms, is 84% (95% CI: 70 - 91%). We also find that the average VE against transmission to others for Infected vaccinated people is 54% (95% CI: 38 - 66%). Finally, we prove summary estimates of the VE against any disease with infection for some of the variants of concern (VOC). The average VE for the VOC B.1.1.7, B.1.1.28 (P1) and B.1.351 are 86% (95% CI: 65 - 84%), 61% (95% CI: 43 - 73%) and 56% (95% CI: 29 - 73%), respectively.


JaxDad

Greater Toronto Area

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Good Sam RV Club Member

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Posted: 05/21/21 06:42pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

pianotuna wrote:



Available to subscribers only (unfortunately)


Don, NOT the same article, but the same idea.

Clicky, clicky.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 05/21/21 08:40pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

One of the seasonal human coronaviruses likely came from cattle and there are reports of cross reactivity of HVoV-OC44 antibodies with SARS-CoV-2.

Quote:

2.4. Coronaviruses of Bovine
The most common coronavirus of bovine is BCoV. This virus is able to cause a variety of clinical forms, including a severe enteric disease in neonate calves, winter disease (a severe enteric form) in adult dairy cattle, and a respiratory disease in cattle of all age groups [20].
Interestingly, HCoV-OC43 likely evolved from ancestral BCoV strains that crossed the interspecies barrier and established an infection in human beings around 1890, following a 290-long nucleotide deletion downstream of the spike gene [21].

Animal Coronaviruses and SARS-COV-2 in Animals, What Do We Actually Know?


Deb and Ed M

SW MI & Space Coast, FL USA

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Posted: 05/22/21 08:34am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Thanks, Mark - that's pretty interesting!! I also read/heard something about humans having had a recent bout of the Common Cold, might have a smidge of immunity to Covid? I only heard it the one time, so maybe it was just wishful thinking, but it would make sense?

MEXICOWANDERER

las peñas, michoacan, mexico

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Posted: 05/25/21 06:18pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Johns Hopkins reported today that clinical trials of Moderna's vaccine in 12-18 year olds resulted in "100% effectiveness".

My personal opinion of this is that vaccination will take the wind out of any sail that believes this age group will act as conduits for spreading the virus. My granddaughters are enthusiastic about getting the vaccine. Brenda and Jesús went today to get their first jab of Sinovac.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 06/01/21 12:34pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is a preprint on a double-blinded study to evaluate the sensitivity (detection of true infections) and specificity (correctly identifying non-infections) of trained dogs and electronic sensors to detect the odors emitted from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients including asymptotic and mild infections (as identified by PCR).

Quote:

3,921 adults were enrolled in the study and odour samples collected from 1097 SARS-CoV-2 infected and 2031 uninfected individuals. OSC sensors were able to distinguish between SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and uninfected, with sensitivity from 98% (95% CI 95-100) to 100% and specificity from 99% (95% CI 97-100) to 100%. Six dogs were able to distinguish between samples with sensitivity ranging from 82% (95% CI 76-87) to 94% (95% CI 89-98) and specificity ranging from 76% (95% CI 70-82) to 92% (95% CI 88-96).


The dogs were trained using odor from patients infected with the original variant but there was no evidence during the double blinded test that infections with the B.1.1.7 variant affected the dogs from correctly identifying infected patients.

Quote:

A relatively narrow range of sensitivity and specificity was apparent between the different dogs tested. In practice, only the highest performing dogs would be deployed. Our results suggest, however, that, in this experimental setting, the dogs had a higher accuracy than the LFT (lateral flow test, strip test like a pregnancy test) which has a wider range and lower overall sensitivity of between 58-77%.29 RT-PCR is the gold standard test due to a high sensitivity (97-99%) and specificity (95-99%),30 but dogs
have a major advantage over both these tests as they are incredibly rapid. Our preparatory work indicates that two dogs could screen 300 people in 30 min, for example, the time it takes to disembark from a plane, and PCR would only need to be used to test those individuals identified as positive by the dogs (Figure 4).


The authors address some limitations in their study.
Quote:

Our study has a number of limitations. Firstly, although dogs could be used to screen samples, the real value would be screening people, and we have not yet tested dogs on people infected with SARS-CoV-2. Secondly, our results suggest dogs are able to detect the B.1.1.7 variant, although the sample size was not sufficient for a reliable estimate of sensitivity. In the event that a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in a different odour profile, trained dogs could be rapidly re-trained to detect the new odour within two days providing odour samples for the new variant are available. Thirdly, there is a possibility that other respiratory viral infections produce similar odour signatures to SARS-CoV-2. This is, however, unlikely given that 26% of uninfected participants in our study displayed classic SARS-CoV-2, cold or flu-like symptoms, and the dogs correctly identified them as uninfected. Additionally, other studies suggest that different viral infections result in distinct odour profiles.9,10, 11 ,12


So why dogs vs electronic sensors? Sensors can detect the presence of the odor; dogs can track the odor to the source within a crowd. I saw a news article that dogs scent trained to marijuana were being retired due to the changing laws; if this is true perhaps these proven scent dogs could be retained to detect SARS-CoV-2.

Using trained dogs and organic semi-cond........mptomatic and mild SARS-CoV-2 infections

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 06/01/21 01:57pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

WHO announces simple, easy-to-say labels for SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Interest and Concern
WHO

See this link for the list of variants and the new names.
WHO: Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 06/02/21 06:42am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

This preprint of a study ifound that immunization and infections to one coronavirus (common cold, sars-cov-1, Mers etc) produced antibodies and T cells that cross react with the other coronaviruses. The authors suggest that one universal coronavirus vaccine could be developed.

SARS coronavirus vaccines protect against different coronaviruses

* This post was edited 06/02/21 06:51am by BCSnob *

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 06/07/21 12:22pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

This peer reviewed published study found that there was cross reactivity between the antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-Cov-1, MERS, and two seasonal coronaviruses.


Serological profiles of pan-coronavirus-specific responses in COVID-19 patients using a multiplexed electro-chemiluminescence-based testing platform
PLOS ONE June 3, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252628


These data support the idea that a universal coronavirus vaccine could be developed. BTW, this study used one of my employer's antibody testing products.

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