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Open Roads Forum  >  Around the Campfire  >  General Topics

 > 2019–2022 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC POSTINGS

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pianotuna

Regina, SK, Canada

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Posted: 09/09/21 08:33am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

A resistant mutation.

"Researchers in Japan have warned that the Mu (B.1.621) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) – the agent that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – appears to be highly resistant to neutralization by sera from convalescent or vaccinated individuals."

https://www.news-medical.net/news/202109........by-convalescent-and-vaccinated-sera.aspx


Regards, Don
My ride is a 28 foot Class C, 256 watts solar, soon to have SiO2 batteries, 3000 watt Magnum hybrid inverter, Sola Basic Autoformer, Microair Easy Start.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 09/09/21 09:00am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Be happy researchers are monitoring the new variants. Don’t panic, the data in the preprint is limited.

Ineffective neutralization of the SARS-CoV-2 Mu variant by convalescent and vaccine sera
BioRxiv Preprint Sept 6, 2021

Quote:

To assess the sensitivity of the Mu variant to antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, we generated pseudoviruses harboring the spike proteins of Mu or the other VOC/VOIs. Virus neutralization assays revealed that the Mu variant is 12.4-fold more resistant to sera of eight COVID-19 convalescents, who were infected during the early pandemic (April–September, 2020), than the parental virus (P=0.0078; Figure 1B). Also, the Mu variant was 7.6-fold more resistant to sera obtained from ten BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals compared to the parental virus (P=0.0020; Figure 1C). Notably, although the Beta VOC was thought to be the most resistant variant to date,3,4 Mu pseudoviruses were significantly more resistant to convalescent serum-mediated neutralization than Beta pseudoviruses (P=0.031; Figure 1B). Thus, the Mu variant shows a pronounced resistance to antibodies elicited by natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Since breakthrough infections are a major threat of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants,5 we strongly suggest to further characterize and monitor the Mu variant.


Serum samples from only 8 previously infected patients and only 10 Pfizer vaccinated (no other vaccines) patients were tested against pseudoviruses.

The key will be if this new variant is more infectious than Delta. From what I've been able to tell, Mu has not been circulating in the same regions as Delta; this would facilitate a relative assessment of infectiousness for Mu and Delta. If Mu is less neutralized than Delta but Delta is more infectious than Mu; then there is less concern about Mu.

* This post was edited 09/09/21 09:11am by BCSnob *

Deb and Ed M

SW MI & Space Coast, FL USA

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Posted: 09/09/21 09:22am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

BCSnob wrote:


Quote:

In majority of the time, accidental virus introduction to an unnatural host does not result in effective infection (35-37,40,41). However, in rare cases/continuous/forced exposure to an unnatural host, the viruses begin to adapt to the new host through virus mutations to tackle the host selection pressure and prolong their lifecycle (35-37,41). Viruses must then continue to evolve to increase their adaptability. Finally, it becomes highly adapted to new species to produce a large viral load that can be transmitted within the new hosts (35,37,38,40). …….. To support this, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in humans displayed widespread mutation/deletions and evolution in the critical genes...


I am curious about the word "forced". Are they saying caged bats infected nearby caged pangolins forced to coexist in Asian live-meat markets? Or are they implying "forced within a laboratory setting"? I remember Dr Redfield saying in an interview, that he felt that Covid was created in the Wuhan Institute, mainly because a "natural" evolution from one species to another tends to take a lot more time to spread.
Link to article

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 09/09/21 09:43am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

I think they mean under constant exposure to the virus as it is living in another species (with out specifying how/why there is constant exposure). One example would be milk maids who got cowpox because of being exposed to infected cows. I don’t know the living habits of wild pangolins; perhaps they coexist/cohabitate with bats.


I looked it up, they do cohabitate
Pangolins and bats living together in u........und burrows in Lopé National Park, Gabon

So how long has SARS-CoV-2 been infecting humans and mutating in humans? If mild symptoms are similar to other respiratory diseases and there are not 100s of cases would we (humans) recognize the viral disease as a new disease?

Read this summary from 2Sept2021
CALL OF THE WILD
Why many scientists say it’s unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a “lab leak”

* This post was last edited 09/09/21 10:21am by BCSnob *   View edit history

Deb and Ed M

SW MI & Space Coast, FL USA

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Posted: 09/10/21 07:12pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Thank you, Mark - I stand corrected-and-educated. The Call of the Wild article was very enlightening! And I would have argued all day about pangolins and bats not being roommates without the link.....LOL!

BCSnob

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Posted: 09/12/21 04:43am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is another preprint that may be of interest to some here. There are good details in this article for these 5 immunocompromised conditions.

Safety and efficacy of the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in five groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls in a prospective open-label clinical trial
MedRxiv preprint September 12, 2021

Quote:

Abstract

Background: Patients with immunocompromised disorders have mainly been excluded from clinical trials of vaccination against COVID-19. Thus, the aim of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the safety and efficacy after two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in five selected groups of immunocompromised patients and healthy controls. Methods: 539 study subjects (449 patients and 90 controls) were included in the clinical trial. The patients had either primary (n=90), or secondary immunodeficiency disorders due to human immunodeficiency virus infection (n=90), allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation/chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy (n=90), solid organ transplantation (SOT) (n=89), or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n=90). The primary endpoint was seroconversion rate two weeks after the second dose. The secondary endpoints were safety and documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Findings: Adverse events were generally mild, but one case of fatal suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction occurred. 72.2% of the immunocompromised patients seroconverted compared to 100% of the controls (p=0.004). Lowest seroconversion rates were found in the SOT (43.4%) and CLL (63.3%) patient groups with observed negative impact of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil and ibrutinib, respectively. Interpretation: The results showed that the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine was safe in immunocompromised patients. The rate of seroconversion was substantially lower than in healthy controls, with a wide range of rates and antibody titres among predefined patient groups and subgroups. This clinical trial highlights the need for additional vaccine doses in certain immunocompromised patient groups and/or subgroups to improve immunity.


BCSnob

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Posted: 09/13/21 12:11pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Here is a preprint of a study to estimate J&J/Janssen 1 shot Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness covering a time when the Delta variant was prevalent.

Effectiveness of the Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S COVID Vaccine
medRxiv preprint September 12, 2021

Here is a summary of the method.
Quote:

we identified individuals newly vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S and up to 10 unvaccinated individuals matched exactly by age, sex, date, location, comorbidity index plus 17 COVID-19 risk factors via propensity score (PS) matching


Here is their summary of vaccine effectiveness (VE).
Quote:

We corrected VE estimates for under-recording of vaccinations in insurance data. Results Among 390,517 vaccinated and 1,524,153 matched unvaccinated individuals, VE was 79% (95% CI, 77% to 80%) for COVID-19 and 81% (79% to 84%) for COVID-19-related hospitalizations. VE was stable over calendar time. Among states with high Delta variant incidence, VE during June/July 2021 was 78% (73% to 82%) for infections and 85% (73% to 91%) for hospitalizations. VE for COVID-19 was higher in individuals <50 years (83%; 81% to 85%) and lower in immunocompromised patients (64%; 57% to 70%).


The J&J vaccine compares well to the mRNA vaccines for effectiveness against the Delta variant in vaccinated patients up to ~ 5 months post vaccination.

BCSnob

Middletown, MD

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Posted: 09/13/21 12:21pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

This preprint has an analysis of reinfection in unvaccinated health care workers over a 10 month period. The CDC defines reinfection as a positive a PCR test (infection) >= 90 days from prior infection.

Incidence of COVID-19 reinfection among Midwestern healthcare employees

Quote:

Of 2,625 participants who experienced at least one COVID-19 infection during the 10-month study period, 156 (5.94%) experienced reinfection


Quote:

Incidence rate of COVID-19 reinfection was 0.35 cases per 1,000 person-days, with participants working in COVID-clinical and clinical units experiencing 3.77 and 3.57 times, respectively, greater risk of reinfection relative to those working in non-clinical units.


Quote:

This study supports the consensus that COVID-19 reinfection, defined as subsequent infection >= 90 days after prior infection, is rare, even among a sample of healthcare workers with frequent exposure.


This study was conducted prior to Delta becoming the dominate variant.

BCSnob

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Posted: 09/13/21 12:30pm Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

Researchers are testing a cleaver treatment and preventative for COVID-19 infections. The compound being tested is soluble ACE2.

Clinical grade ACE2 as a universal agent to block SARS-CoV-2 variants

Quote:

Here we report that soluble ACE2 (APN01), already being tested in clinical trials (NCT04335136), binds receptor binding domain (RBD) and full-length Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants with increased affinity when compared to the SARS-CoV-2 reference strain Spike and effectively neutralizes infections of all tested variants. We also report in our accompanying paper (Shoemaker et al.) that the same clinical grade APN01 can prevent COVID-19 symptoms in a faithful SARS-CoV-2 infection animal model and can be administered as an aerosol directly into the lungs of infected individuals to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Clinical Phase I testing of this inhalation approach is currently underway. Since Spike/ACE2 interaction is the crucial first step of viral infection, the viral Spike cannot mutate out of ACE2 binding, without a loss in infectivity and tissue tropism. Our data provide the blueprint for a universal anti-COVID-19 agent with the potential to treat or even prevent infections against, in essence, all current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Deb and Ed M

SW MI & Space Coast, FL USA

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Posted: 09/14/21 08:34am Link  |  Quote  |  Print  |  Notify Moderator

BCSnob wrote:

Researchers are testing a cleaver treatment and preventative for COVID-19 infections. The compound being tested is soluble ACE2.

Clinical grade ACE2 as a universal agent to block SARS-CoV-2 variants



Once again - I read the whole thing and understood about 1/3 of it - but this seems like insanely-good news?!

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